Genus: Rachana Eliot, 1978
Species: jalindra Horsfield, 1829
Subspecies: burbona Hewitson, 1878
Wingspan of Grownup Butterfly: 30-34mm
Caterpillar Native Host Plant: Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Loranthaceae, frequent title: Frequent Chinese language
The underside of a male Banded Royal.
The upperside of a male Banded Royal.
Bodily Description of Grownup Butterfly:
On the upperside, the male is deep shining blue with black distal borders on each forewing and hindwing; the feminine is brown with black spots on the hindwing tornus and in area 2 surmounted by a slender bluish gray space, and the black spots in areas 1b and a pair of lined with white patches. On the underside, each sexes are white with a broad brown distal border on each fore- and hindwings. A collection of white-striae within the brown border separated it into two halves, with the outer half paler brown than the interior half. Within the hindwing, there’s a black tornal spot, a blush inexperienced patch in area 1b, a outstanding orange-crowned black sub-marginal spot in area 2, and black post-discal striae in areas 1b and a pair of. Every hindwing has a pair of black tails at ends of veins 1b and a pair of,
with the one at vein 1b bordered with dense white cilia, and the one at vein 2 white-tipped.
The upperside of a feminine Banded Royal.
The underside of a feminine Banded Royal.
The Banded Royal is uncommon in Singapore. It was solely just lately re-discovered in 2006 the place a couple of people had been sighted in an open space throughout the Central Catchment Nature Reserve. Since then, sightings
of this species have largely been confined to a couple places throughout the
catchment nature reserve and in a western wasterland, and usually solely a single particular person
appeared every time. The fast-flying adults have been sighted taking nectar at
Throughout the distribution area of the Banded Royal, a number of crops within the Loranthaceae household have been recognized as the larval hosts. In Singapore, so far just one larval host plant has been recognized. This native larval host is the Frequent Chinese language Mistletoe (Macrosolen cochinchinensis ), a parasitic shrub
with all components of the crops glabrous (having no hairs, easy). The leaves
are leathery, reverse, ovate or lanceolate. On this plant, the early levels of the Banded Royal feed on the younger leaves and growing fruits, with a powerful desire for the latter.
A Banded Royal feminine laying an egg on a department of the Chinese language Mistletoe.
A freshly laid egg of the Banded Royal. Inset: an enlarged view of the egg.
Eggs are laid singly on the stem of the host plant, usually on the axil (angle/area between stem and department, or between leaf and stem), or on a recess space or nook/crevice current on the stem. Every egg is about 0.8mm in diameter, white with a powerful greenish tinge when freshly laid. It’s bun-shaped with a depressed micropylar on the pole and a floor reticulated with relatively massive polygonal depressions.
Two vlews of an egg of the Banded Royal.
A completely developed egg with the caterpillar able to emerge.
It takes about 3 days for the egg to hatch. The younger
caterpillar consumes simply sufficient of the egg shell to emerge. It’s pale
yellowish brown in coloration, and has a size of about 1.1mm. Lengthy setae (hairs)
run alongside the size of the physique dorsally in addition to sub-spiracularly.
Raised dorsal tubercles are clear. A diamond-shaped black prothoracic protect is current.
The first instar lasts about
3 days with the physique size elevated to about 2.1mm.
A newly hatched caterpillar subsequent to its empty egg shell, size: 1.1mm.
Two views of a newly hatched caterpillar, size: 1.1mm.
Two views of a 1st instar caterpillar, size: 1.9mm.
A late 1st instar caterpillar of the Banded Royal, dormant previous to the moult to the following instar.
Within the 2nd instar caterpillar, the dorsal tubercles are proportionately shriveled,
and the lengthy dorsal setae seen within the 1st instar at the moment are absent. The physique base color can both be reddish brown (crimson kind) or inexperienced (inexperienced kind). The caterpillar nonetheless contains a black diamond-shaped prothoracic protect. The dorsum of the mesothorax and metamthorax are whitish, forming a outstanding and trapezoidal patch. The dorsum of the third to the fifth stomach segements are additionally whitish, whereas that of the first, 2nd, sixth and seventh stomach segements are darkish reddish brown. The dorsal nectary organ is whitish and featured prominently on the dorsum of the seventh stomach section. The 2nd instar lasts for about 3 days, with the physique size reaching as much as 5.5-6.3mm.
A newly moulted 2nd instar caterpillar, consuming its
previous pores and skin.
Two views of a 2nd instar caterpillar of the Banded Royal, crimson kind, size: 4.5mm.
Two views of 2nd instar caterpillar of the Banded Royal, inexperienced kind, size:5.5mm.
Two views of a 2nd instar caterpillar, late on this stage, dormant previous to its moult, size:5.6mm.
Within the third instar, the markings on the dorsum of the caterpillar resemble these within the 2nd instar, however there may be an extra pair of black dorso-lateral spots featured on the posterior segments. As within the 2nd instar, the physique base color can both be greenish or brownish. The dorsal nectary organ on the seventh stomach section and the tentacular organs on the eighth abdominla section at the moment are simply discernible.
Two views of a newly moulted third instar caterpillar, consuming its previous pores and skin.
Frontal view of a third instar caterpillar, displaying the black prothoracic protect, and the whitish patch on the mesothorax and metathorax.
Posterior segments of a third instar caterpillar, displaying the dorsal nectary organ on the seventh stomach section, and the tentacular organs on the eighth stomach section.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar consuming a growing fruit of the Chinese language Mistletoe, with greenish physique base color, size: 7.5mm.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar, with brownish physique base color, size: 10mm.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar consuming a growing fruit of the Chinese language Mistletoe, with greenish physique base color, size: 11.5mm.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar consuming a growing fruit of the Chinese language Mistletoe, with brownish physique base color, size: 12.5mm.
Because the physique grows to a size of round 12-13mm, the caterpillar stops feeding and involves relaxation at a spot on the stem to arrange for the following moult. After about 3
days within the third instar, the moult to the 4th and last instar takes place.
Two views of a late third instar caterpillar, dormant previous to its moult to the ultimate instar.
The 4th instar caterpillar resembles the third instar caterpillar in most physique options/markings, and is mostly pale brown to greenish brown. In some particular person specimens, the physique color will be largely whitish within the stomach segments. The prothoracic protect and the top are each black, as within the earlier instars. The 4th (and last) instar lasts about 5 days with the physique size reaching as much as 23mm.
Two views of a newly moulted 4th instar caterpillar, consuming its previous pores and skin.
Frontal view of a 4th instar caterpillar, displaying the black prothoracic protect, and the whitish patch on the mesothorax and metathorax.
Two views of a 4th instar caterpillar feeding on a growing fruit of the Chinese language Mistletoe, size: 18mm.
Two views of a 4th instar caterpillar, size: 19mm.
Two views of a late 4th instar caterpillar, size: 23mm.
Because it enters the pre-pupatory section of its life cycle, the caterpillar ceases its feeding exercise. Its physique progressively shrinks in size and the color turns pale brownish. The pre-pupatory caterpillar wanders round for as much as 1-1.5 day in its quest for an acceptable pupation web site. Usually it settles for a spot on a floor which is partially hid. On the chosen pupation web site, it stays dormant for 1 day or so earlier than spinning a silk pad
to which it attaches itself by way of claspers on the posterior finish.
Two views of a pre-pupa of the Banded Royal.
The pupation occasion for a Banded Royal caterpillar.
About 1 day after the pre-pupatory caterpillar secures itself to the pupation spot, pupation takes place. The pupa
is held firmly by way of its cremaster to the silk pad on pupaton spot. It’s 14.6 to fifteen.2mm in size, with the everyday form for a lycaenid pupa. It has a brown thorax with a whitish elongated dorsal patch on the mesothorax and metathorax, and pale yellow brown abdomihnal segments and brownish wing pads.
Two views of a pupa of the Banded Royal, size: 14.8mm.
Two views of a mature pupa of a feminine Banded Royal.
Two views of a mature pupa of a male Banded Royal.
Eleven to 13 days later, the pupa turns into darkened in coloration signaling the
imminent emergence of the grownup. One can now inform the intercourse of the soon-to-emerge butterfly from the coloration of the wing pad at this stage (see photos above). The subsequent day the grownup butterfly
emerges from the mature pupa.
A feminine Banded Royal emerges from its pupal case.
A newly eclosed feminine Banded Royal resting subsequent to its pupal case.
The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M.
Pendlebury, 4th Version, Malayan Nature Society, 1992.
Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 2nd Version, 2012.
A Discipline Information to the Butterflies of Singapore, Khew S.Okay., Ink On Paper Communications, 2nd Version, 2015.
Textual content by Horace Tan, Images by Loh Mei Yee, Lim Cheng Ai, Khew SK and Horace Tan