Genus: Catochrysops Boisduval, 1832
Species: panormus C. Felder, 1860
Subspecies: exiguus Distant, 1886
Wingspan of Grownup Butterfly: 24-30mm
Caterpillar Native Host Vegetation: Dendrolobium umbellatum (Fabaceae, frequent names: Dendulang, Petai Belalang, Petai Laut, Sea Dendrolobium, 伞花假木豆), Pueraria phaseoloides (Fabaceae, frequent names: Puero, Tropical Kudzu).
A Silver Overlook-me-not visting flowers for nectar.
The upperside of a male Silver Overlook-me-not.
A principal identification key of the Silver Overlook-me-not.
Bodily Description of Grownup Butterfly:
On the upperside, the male is pale shining blue on each forewing and hindwing, and a black marginal spot in house 2 of the hindwing; the feminine is closely black dusted with broad black apical space on the forewing, pale bluish wing bases, and the black marginal spot is orange-crowned. On the underside, each sexes are greyish white with the same old streaks and spots. Within the hindwing, there’s a lengthy filamentous white-tipped black tail at vein 2 and an orange-crowned black spot in house 2. Within the forewing, there’s a small costal spot which is positioned shut to the higher finish of the postl-discal streak (see image above).
The upperside of a feminine Silver Overlook-me-not.
A feminine Silver Overlook-me-not taking nectar from a flower of Cuphea hyssophifolia ‘Pink’ (False Heather).
A male Silver Overlook-me-not perching on a stem of Dendrolobium umbellatum.
A male Silver Overlook-me-not puddling on moist floor.
The Silver Overlook-me-not is reasonably uncommon in Singapore. Previously, the adults have been primarily present in open wastelands. Nonetheless, with the widespread planting of its host plant, Dendrolobium umbellatum, in varied parks and gardens, and alongside a number of stretches of street within the current years, adults sightings have grow to be extra frequent. At instances, a number of people could be seen combating for the favourite sunbathing spots at some of those areas. The adults fly with an erratic flight, and have been sighted taking nectar at flowering crops. Each sexes have been noticed to sunbathe with partly or absolutely opened wings in sunlit spots. Males even have a behavior of puddling on damp footpaths and moist grounds.
A feminine Silver Overlook-me-not taking nectar from a flower of Tridax procumbens (Coat Buttons).
A puddling male Silver Overlook-me-not.
A male Silver Overlook-me-not discovered probing a leaf floor with its proboscis.
In Singapore, to this point solely two larval host crops have been recognized. One in all them is Pueraria phaseoloides, a twiner and creeping plant generally present in open wastelands. The opposite plant is Dendrolobium umbellatum, a shrub or small tree normally discovered alongside seashores and in seashore forests, however widespread cultivation of this plant has made it a standard sight in varied gardens, parks and different city settings. On the host crops, the early levels of the Silver Overlook-me-not feed on the flower buds, flowers and creating fruits, with a robust choice for flower buds.
Native host plant #1: Dendrolobium umbellatum (Fabaceae, frequent names: Dendulang, Petai Belalang, Petai Laut, Sea Dendrolobium, 伞花假木豆).
Native host plant #2: Pueraria phaseoloides (Fabaceae, frequent names: Puero, Tropical Kudzu).
Eggs are laid both singly or in a pair in house between tightly organized flower buds of the host plant, and are hid with a clear gelatinous substance. At instances, the egg is likely to be uncovered when the expansion of flower buds causes them to maneuver additional aside. Every bun-shaped egg is about 0.4 to 0.5mm in diameter and whitish in coloration. It’s bun-shaped with a depressed micropylar on the pole and a floor reticulated with quite massive polygonal depressions.
A Silver Overlook-me-not feminine looking for a spot to put egg on Dendrolobium umbellatum.
A Silver Overlook-me-not feminine laying an egg on Pueraria phaseoloides.
A freshly laid egg of the Silver Overlook-me-not among the many flower buds of Dendrolobium umbellatum. Hid inside a clear gelatinous substance indicated by the arrow.
An egg of the Silver Overlook-me-not.
Left: A totally developed egg. Proper: The newly hatched caterpillar resting subsequent to the empty egg shell.
It takes about 3 days for the egg to hatch. The younger
caterpillar consumes simply sufficient of the egg shell to emerge. It’s pale
greyish brown in coloration, and has a size of about 1mm. Lengthy setae (hairs)
run alongside the size of the physique dorsally in addition to sub-spiracularly.
The top capsule is darkish brown to black in coloration. The first instar lasts about
3 days with the physique size elevated to about 1.6mm.
Two views of a newly hatched caterpillar, size: 1mm.
A 1st instar caterpillar feeding on a flower bud of Dendrolobium umbellatum. Word that pile of frass pellets close to the posterior finish of the caterpillar.
Two views of a 1st instar caterpillar, size: 1.6mm.
A late 1st instar caterpillar of the Silver Overlook-me-not, dormant previous to the moult to the following instar.
Within the 2nd instar caterpillar, along with the lengthy setae
operating alongside the size of the physique dorsally and sub-spiracularly, quite a few quick setae cowl the physique floor.
The physique base color is pale yellowish inexperienced. Pale whitish dorsal bands regularly turns into distinguishable because the second instar progresses. Sub-spiracularly, the physique rim is pale whitish. The top capsule stays darkish brown to black in coloration, and will probably be so for the following two instars. The 2nd instar lasts for about 2-3 days, with the physique size reaching as much as 3.5mm.
Two views of a newly moulted 2nd instar caterpillar, with its previous pores and skin subsequent to its posterior finish.
Two views of a 2nd instar caterpillar of the Silver Overlook-me-not, size: 3mm.
A 2nd instar caterpillar of the Silver Overlook-me-not feeding on a flower bud of Dendrolobium umbellatum.
Two views of a 2nd instar caterpillar, late on this stage, dormant previous to its moult.
Within the third instar, the dorsal and sub-spiracular setae seems to be proportionately shorter in comparison with these within the earlier instar. The physique is now coated in a dense coat of whitish stellate setae, and the pale whitish dorsal and sub-spiracular bands are extra outstanding. From the outer sides of the dorsal bands, quick bands emanates on the angle, giving an look of a number of chevron markings. The physique base coloration ranges from pale yellow inexperienced to pale inexperienced. The dorsal nectary organ on the seventh belly section is current and barely discernible.
High: late 2nd instar caterpillar; backside: newly moulted to third instar, its previous pores and skin mendacity on the posterior finish.
Two views of an early third instar caterpillar feeding on a flower bud, size: 4.1mm.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar, size: 5mm.
A third instar caterpillar discovered within the discipline feeding on a seed pod of Dendrolobium umbellatum.
Two views of a late third instar caterpillar on the underside of a leaf, dormant previous to its moult to the following instar, size: 5.3mm.
Because the physique grows to a size of round 6mm, the caterpillar stops feeding and involves relaxation at a spot on the underside of a depart or stem to organize for the following moult. After about 2-3
days within the third instar, the moult to the 4th and last instar takes place.
Two views of a really late third instar caterpillar, dormant previous to its moult to the ultimate instar.
The 4th instar caterpillar resembles the third instar caterpillar in most physique options/markings, however with a lot contrasting whitish dorsal bands, chevron markings and sub-spiracular band. Thhe dorsal nectary organ on the dorsum of the seventh abdomina section is now simply discernible, and so is the pair of tentacular organs on the eighth belly section. This 4th (and last) instar lasts about 3-4 days with the physique size reaching as much as 11mm. On the final day of the 4th instar, the physique color of some particular person caterpillars flip reddish brown (purple kind), whereas others stays greenish (inexperienced kind).
Two views of a newly moulted 4th instar caterpillar (the identical particular person featured within the above image).
Frontal view of a 4th instar caterpillar, displaying the darkish brown head.
A 4th instar caterpillar discovered within the discipline feeding on a flower of Dendrolobium umbellatum.
Two views of a 4th instar caterpillar, size: 9mm.
A 4th instar caterpillar discovered within the discipline with ants in attendance.
Two views of a late 4th instar caterpillar, purple kind.
Because it enters the pre-pupatory section of its life cycle, the caterpillar ceases its feeding exercise. Right now, its physique regularly shrinks in size. The pre-pupatory caterpillar usually settles for a spot on a floor which is partially hid both amongst foliage of the host plant or in leaf litter. On the chosen pupation website, it spins a silk girdle and a silk pad
to which it attaches with claspers at its posterior finish.
Two views of a pre-pupa of the Silver Overlook-me-not, purple kind.
Two views of a pre-pupa of the Silver Overlook-me-not, inexperienced kind.
The pupation occasion for a Silver Overlook-me-not caterpillar.
After about 1 day of the motionless pre-pupatory stage, pupation takes place. The pupa
is held firmly through its cremaster to the silk pad. It’s 7 to 8mm in size, with the everyday form for a lycaenid pupa. The contemporary pupa is both yellow inexperienced or pale beige brown, however it can ultimately flip pale yellowish to beige brown inside first day. The pupa is adorned with a number of black markings of various configurations and dimensions.
Two views of a newly fashioned pupa of the Silver Overlook-me-not from the red-form pre-pupa.
Two views of a newly fashioned pupa of the Silver Overlook-me-not from the inexperienced kind pre-pupa.
Two views of a pupa of the Silver Overlook-me-not, size: 7mm.
Two views of a mature pupa of a feminine Silver Overlook-me-not.
Two views of a mature pupa of a male Silver Overlook-me-not.
About six days later, the pupa turns into darkened in coloration signaling the
imminent emergence of the grownup. One can now inform the intercourse of the soon-to-emerge grownup stage from the coloration of the wing pad at this stage (see footage above). The following day the grownup Silver Overlook-me-not
emerges from the mature pupa.
A male Silver Overlook-me-not emerges from its pupal case.
A feminine Silver Overlook-me-not emerges from its pupal case.
A newly eclosed male Silver Overlook-me-not resting subsequent to its pupal case.
The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M.
Pendlebury, G. and N. van der Poorten (Eds.), fifth Version, Malayan Nature Society, 2020.
Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 2nd Version, 2012.
A Discipline Information to the Butterflies of Singapore, Khew S.Ok., Ink On Paper Communications, 2nd Version, 2015.
Textual content by Horace Tan; Images by Loh Mei Yee, Lim Cheng Ai, Sunny Chir, Nelson Ong, Khew SK and Horace Tan; Movies by Loh Mei Yee and Horace Tan.