Genus: Ancema Eliot, 1973
Species: blanka de Níceville, 1894
Subspecies: blanka de Níceville, 1894
Wingspan of Grownup Butterfly: 28-33mm
Caterpillar Native Host Plant: Viscum ovalifolium (Santalaceae, frequent identify: Oval-leaved
A Silver Royal taking nectary fluid from flowers of the Mile-a-minute.
A feminine Silver Royal.
A male Silver Royal puddling on muddy floor.
Bodily Description of Grownup Butterfly:
The eyes are greenish. On the wing upperside, the male is brilliant shining blue with black border and radiating blue streaks in direction of the termen. The feminine is of a paler blue with broad black border on each fore- and hindwing that are rounder than these of the male. On the wing underside, the male is greyish white with a slivery sheen whereas the feminine is pale greyish brown. There’s a post-discal sequence of slim darkish streaks, very far more obscure on the forewing than on the hindwing. Within the hindwing, there are black tornal spots in areas 1a and a couple of, topped with orange patches. Every hindwing has a pair of white-tipped black tails at ends of veins 1b and a couple of.
The upperside view of a puddling male Silver Royal.
The upperside view of a sun-bathing feminine Silver Royal.
The upperside view of a sun-bathing male Silver Royal.
The Silver Royal may be very uncommon in Singapore. It was re-discovered in 2005 the place a single particular person was noticed feeding on the flowers of a Syzygium tree. Since then there have been a couple of sporadic sightings at numerous places within the Southern Ridges. The quick flying adults have usually been sighted whereas visiting flowers at tree prime or hill prime. The male has additionally been noticed to puddle at damp footpaths.
A feminine Silver Royal visiting flowers of the Ivy Palm.
A male Silver Royal visiting a flower of the Spanish Needle (Bidens alba).
A male Silver Royal.
A feminine Silver Royal visiting flowers of the Mile-a-minute.
In Singapore, up to now just one larval host plant for Silver Royal has been recognized. This plant is the Oval-leaved Mistletoe (Viscum ovalifolium ), the identical parasitic plant utilized by the early phases of the Golden Royal (Pseudotajuria donatana donatana). On this plant, the early phases of the Silver Royal in all instars feed primarily on the leaves, and sometimes the flower buds of the host plant.
Native host plant: Viscum ovalifolium (Oval-leaved
Eggs are laid singly on numerous elements of the host plant, such because the leaf, flower buds and fruits. Every whitish egg is about 0.8mm in diameter. It’s dome-shaped with a depressed micropylar on the pole and its total floor is roofed with pits. When freshly laid, the egg has a robust greenish tone within the micropylar and floor pits.
Two vlews of an egg of the Silver Royal, diameter: about 0.8mm.
Left: mature egg with a gap made by the soon-to-emerge caterpillar. Proper: newly emerged caterpillar of the Silver Royal.
It takes about 3 days for the egg to hatch. The younger
caterpillar consumes simply sufficient of the egg shell to emerge. It’s pale
yellowish brown in coloration, and has a size of about 1.2mm. Lengthy setae (hairs)
run alongside the size of the physique dorsally in addition to sub-spiracularly. The top is brown in color. The newly hatched doesn’t trouble to eat the remnant of the egg shell and proceeds to feed on leaf floor within the neighborhood.
The first instar lasts about
2 days with the physique size elevated to about 2.5mm. Earlier than the moult, the caterpillar sometimes take up its place on the floor of a leaf, and turns into motionless.
An empty egg shell of the Silver Royal.
Two views of a newly hatched caterpillar taking its first meal on the leaf floor, size: 1.2mm.
Two views of a 1st instar caterpillar, size: 2.5mm.
Two views of a late 1st instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal, dormant previous to the moult to the subsequent instar.
The 2nd instar caterpillar has quite a few brief setae overlaying its physique surafce. The caterpillar now encompasses a dark-brown diamond-shaped prothoracic protect. The dorsal nectary organ on the dorsum of the seventh stomach section is discernible and whitish. Because it grows on this instar, the yellowish brown physique steadily turns greenish. The 2nd instar lasts about 2 days, with the physique size reaching as much as about 4.1mm.
A newly moulted 2nd instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal.
Two views of a 2nd instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal, size: 3.4mm.
Two views of a 2nd instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal, taking up a greenish undertone, size: 3.7mm.
Two views of a late 2nd instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal, dormant previous to the moult to the subsequent instar.
The third instar caterpillar resembles the 2nd instar caterpillar initially, however with a outstanding and proportionately bigger prothoracic protect and higher density of physique setae. The prothoracic protect is darkish brown with a central white streak and two small lateral white patches. Because it grows on this instar, the physique turns more and more darkish greenish general. The dorsal nectary organ at this late stage has the white coloration confined to its central half. The third instar lasts about 2 days and the physique size will increase as much as 7.5mm.
Two views of a newly moulted third instar caterpillar.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar feeding on a flower bud, size: 6.9mm.
Two views of a third instar caterpillar feeding on a younger leaf of the host plant.
A view of a third instar feeding on the leaf, exhibiting the injury brought about to the leaf.
Two views of a late third instar caterpillar, dormant previous to its moult.
The 4th instar caterpillar resembles the late third instar caterpillar in most physique options/markings. One distinguishing function is that the prothoracic protect is now largely whitish. The 4th instar lasts about 3 days with the physique size reaching as much as 13mm.
A newly moulted 4th instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal, but to start consuming its previous pores and skin.
Two views of a 4th instar caterpillar, early on this instar, size: 8mm. Inset: The prothoracic protect.
Two views of 4th instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal feeding on younger leaf of the Oval-leaved Mistletoe.
A 4th instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal feeding alongside the leaf edge, size: 13mm.
Two views of a late 4th instar caterpillar, dormant previous to its moult.
The fifth instar caterpillar resembles the 4th instar caterpillar carefully in most physique options/markings that are proportionately bigger than these within the 4th instar. The fifth (and ultimate) instar lasts about 3 days with the physique size reaching as much as 22mm.
A newly moulted fifth instar caterpillar, but to eat its previous pores and skin.
Two views of a fifth instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal consuming alongside the leaf edge, size: 15.5mm.
Two views of a fifth instar caterpillar of the Silver Royal, size: 20mm. Inset: prothoracic protect.
Two views of a late fifth instar caterpillar consuming alongside leaf edge, size: 22mm.
Because it enters the pre-pupatory part of its life cycle, the caterpillar ceases its feeding exercise and wanders round for a pupation web site. As is the case for the Golden Royal, the pre-pupatory caterpillar of the Silver Royal settles for a spot on the upperside of a leaf with a robust choice for a leaf with curled up edges providing some levels of concealment. On the chosen web site, it spins a silk pad and a silk girdle to safe itself to the leaf.
Two views of an early pre-pupa of the Silver Royal.
Two views of a late pre-pupa of the Silver Royal.
After about 1 day of the pre-pupal interval, pupation takes place. The pupa
is held through its cremaster to the silk pad on the leaf floor. It’s 12 to 13mm in size, with the everyday form for a lycaenid pupa, albeit extra rotund and broader than typical. The pupa is yellowish inexperienced with quite a few whitish transverse streaks. As well as, reddish brown spots seem on the dorsum of the stomach. There may be near-diamond-shaped reddish brown patch on the dorsum of the metathorax with two small black spots anterior to the patch.
Two views of a pupa of the Silver Royal.
Two frontal views of a pupa of the Silver Royal.
The pupal interval is noticed to be 7.5 days for the feminine and eight.5 days for the male. On the night time earlier than ecloson, the pupa turns into darkened in colour signaling the
imminent emergence of the grownup. One can now inform the intercourse of the soon-to-emerge butterfly from the coloration of the wing pad at this stage. The following morning the grownup butterfly emerges from the mature pupa.
Two views of a mature pupa of a feminine Silver Royal.
Two views of a mature pupa of a male Silver Royal.
A newly eclosed feminine Silver Royal resting subsequent to its empty pupal case.
A male Silver Royal rising from its pupal case.
[C&P5] The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula, A.S. Corbet and H.M. Pendlebury; G. and N. van der Poorten (Eds.), fifth Version, Malayan Nature Society (2020).
Butterflies of Thailand, Pisuth Ek-Amnuay, 2nd Version, 2012.
A Discipline Information to the Butterflies of Singapore, Khew S.Ok., Ink On Paper Communications, 2nd Version, 2015.
Textual content by Horace Tan, Pictures by Loke PF, Loh Mei Yee, Khew SK and Horace Tan, Video by Horace Tan.